What is Cerebral palsy?
- Now -a -days it is the most common disability of the childhood. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of disorders that affects muscle movement and coordination of the body parts.
- In many cases vision, hearing and sensation are also affected.
- According to the Centre for Disease Control it affects at least 1.5 to 4 out of every 1000 children worldwide.
- The incident is quite more in developing and under developing countries.
CAUSES OF CEREBRAL PALSY-
- Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain.
- The incidence of cerebral palsy among babies who have one or more of risk factors is higher than the normal population.
- The risk factors associated with cerebral palsy are grouped into prenatal, perinatal and post natal factors.
What are the risk factors?
- Delivery of the child before normal time.
- Low birth weight of baby that is less than 2.5 kg
- If the thyroid level is high in mother.
- Bleeding during 6 to 9 months.
- Infection to mother.
- Excessive use of drugs.
- Any injury to the mother during first 3 months of pregnancy.
- Over age of mother that is more than 35 years.
- Long duration labour pain.
- Forceful delivery of child.
- Ceasarian delivery.
- Late child birth cry leading to hypoxia.
- Decrease heart rate of mother.
- Injury due to fall from height or from a road traffic accident.
- Infection in the brain of child.
- Jundice of the child.
CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL PALSY-
Commonly the cerebral palsy is classified into 2 types i.e.
- According to motor impairments.
- According to limitation of movements.
ACCORDING TO MOTOR IMPAIRMENTS- Spastic, Ataxic, Athetoid and Mixed cerebral palsy
ACCORDING TO LIMITATION OF MOVEMENTS- Hemiplegic , Diplegic and Quadriplegic cerebral palsy
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF CEREBRAL PALSY-
- Abnormal body posture
- Tightness of the body parts
- Inability to do the normal activities
- Difficulty in thinking,learning and communicating with others
- Abnormal muscle tone development and coordination
- Difficulty in walking due to tightness of muscle
- Speech, hearing problems and loss of balance
DIAGNOSIS OF CEREBRAL PALSY-
- The diagnosis is done by child’s birth history and by a general movement examination which involves measuring movements of the body parts.
- CT scan and MRI of brain can also be done to diagnose CP
- X-RAY of skull
TREATMENT OF CEREBRAL PALSY-
- Treatment setting in cerebral palsy child is a team work of physician,surgeon,physiotherapist and clinical psychologist.
- Every professional should work as a team to evaluate the child and set a treatment goal approach.
- In the treatment goal the work of a physiotherapist is important rather than to other team members.
ROLE OF PHYSIOTHERAPIST-
-In improving the activity of a child.
– To prevent or decrease the deformity by using any assistive device.
-By doing regular exercise to decrease the abnormal tone of muscle.
-To strengthen the affected and weak muscle.
-To teach the child daily living activities.