CEREBRAL PALSY

cerebral palsy

 

What is Cerebral palsy?

  • Now -a -days it is the most common disability of the childhood. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of disorders that affects muscle movement and coordination of the body parts.
  • In many cases vision, hearing and sensation are also affected.
  • According to the Centre for Disease Control it affects at least 1.5 to 4 out of every 1000 children worldwide.
  • The incident is quite more in developing and under developing countries.

CAUSES OF CEREBRAL PALSY-

  • Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain.
  • The incidence of cerebral palsy among babies who have one or more of risk factors is higher than the normal population.
  • The risk factors associated with cerebral palsy are grouped into prenatal, perinatal and post natal factors.

What are the risk factors?

PRENATAL FACTORS-

  • Delivery of the child before normal time.
  • Low birth weight of baby that is less than 2.5 kg
  • If the thyroid level is high in mother.
  • Bleeding during 6 to 9 months.
  • Infection to mother.
  • Excessive use of drugs.
  • Any injury to the mother during first 3 months of pregnancy.
  • Over age of mother that is more than 35 years.

PERINATAL FACTORS-

  • Long duration labour pain.
  • Forceful delivery of child.
  • Ceasarian delivery.
  • Late child birth cry leading to hypoxia.
  • Decrease heart rate of mother.

POSTNATAL FACTORS

  • Injury due to fall from height or from a road traffic accident.
  • Infection in the brain of child.
  • Jundice of the child.

CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL PALSY-

Commonly the cerebral palsy is classified into 2 types i.e.

  • According to motor impairments.
  • According to limitation of movements.

ACCORDING TO MOTOR IMPAIRMENTS- Spastic, Ataxic, Athetoid and Mixed cerebral palsy

ACCORDING TO LIMITATION OF MOVEMENTS- Hemiplegic , Diplegic and Quadriplegic cerebral palsy

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF CEREBRAL PALSY-

  • Abnormal body posture
  • Tightness of the body parts
  • Inability to do the normal activities
  • Difficulty in thinking,learning and communicating with others
  • Abnormal muscle tone development and coordination
  • Difficulty in walking due to tightness of muscle
  • Speech, hearing problems and loss of balance

DIAGNOSIS OF CEREBRAL PALSY-

  • The diagnosis is done by child’s birth history and by a general movement examination which involves measuring movements of the body parts.
  • CT scan and MRI of brain can also be done to diagnose CP
  • X-RAY of skull

TREATMENT OF CEREBRAL PALSY-

  • Treatment setting in cerebral palsy child is a team work of physician,surgeon,physiotherapist and clinical psychologist.
  • Every professional should work as a team to evaluate the child and set a treatment goal approach.
  • In the treatment goal the work of a physiotherapist is important rather than to other team members.

ROLE OF PHYSIOTHERAPIST-

-In improving the activity of a child.

– To prevent or decrease the deformity by using any assistive device.

-By doing regular exercise to decrease the abnormal tone of muscle.

-To strengthen the affected and weak muscle.

-To teach the child daily living activities.

 

 

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